NIA10 with N-Acetyl Glucosamine contains a 10% concentration of niacinamide (one of the two major forms of vitamin B3).
Niacinamide is a biologically active form of niacin (vitamin B3). It is well tolerated by the skin in comparison to other common forms of this vitamin (e.g., nicotinic acid), which often induce uncomfortable skin flushing reactions.
Clinical evaluation of topical formulations containing niacinamide have shown several cosmetic benefits for skin, such as the reductions in hyperpigmentation, redness, and surface sebum.1
Hyperpigmentation is caused by melanogenesis, which is a complex process of melanin synthesis in melanosomes of melanocytes.
One of the interactions between keratinocytes and melanocytes regarding melanogenesis is the cytokine signaling pathway.
Studies reported that the UV-induced increase in interleukin-1α in the epidermis triggers the release of endothelin-1 from keratinocytes, stimulating melanin production in melanocytes.2
In addition to the cytokine signaling pathway, another important interaction between melanocytes and keratinocytes is the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes.
The modulation of protease-activated receptor 2 activation has been shown to affect melanosome transfer by interfering with keratinocyte phagocytosis, which changes pigment production and deposition.3-4 Data suggested that topical application of niacinamide downregulates melanogenesis and the number of melanosomes transferred.4
Sebum is the thin film of lipids composed of triglycerides, diglycerides, fatty acids, wax esters, squalene, sterols, sterol esters, and phospholipids.5-6
It is secreted by the sebaceous glands, which are most numerous on the face, with a density of 400–800 glands/cm2 6-8
Possible functions of sebum include the regulation of transepidermal water loss; protection against sunburn; and delivery of antioxidants to the skin surface.9-10
However, excessive sebum on the face is responsible for both facial shine and the formation of comedonal and inflammatory acne lesions. Studies have shown that topical application of niacinamide decreases facial sebum production.11
It is theorized that niacinamide possibly changed the movement of sebum to the skin surface by altering the reservoir in the duct connecting the sebaceous gland to the skin surface at the follicular ostia.12
N-acetyl glucosamine (NAG) is a basic component of hyaluronic acid on the cell surface.13-15
Topical application of NAG stimulates the production of hyaluronic acid and subsequently hydrates and alleviates dry skin. It has also been reported to be effective in reducing the production of melanin in melanocytes via the inhibition of glycosylation, which is a required process in the conversion of inactive pro-tyrosinase to active tyrosinase.16-22
As a result, the combination of niacinamide and NAG could be more effective cosmetically.
NIA10 with N-acetyl glucosamine contains a low concentration of salicylic acid, which helps breaking down follicular keratotic plugs and softening the top layer of skin cells whilst Zinc PCA in the product further reduces sebum secretion, hence limits bacterial proliferation. A combination of solvents is specifically used in the formulation to aid the penetration of the active ingredients deeper into the epidermis.