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Science

Introduction

CRM3 with Tripeptide contains a 3% concentration of ceramide complex. Ceramide is the main component of the stratum corneum in human skin, creating a water-impermeable layer with cholesterol and saturated fatty acids to prevent excessive water loss due to evaporation.1-2 It also helps repair the skin barrier function to further reduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and subsequently keeps the skin hydrated and alleviates dryness.3 

Mechanism

The human stratum corneum consists of several layers of keratinized corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix of ordered lamellar structure. A highly ordered arrangement of lipids plays an essential role in keeping an optimal skin barrier and regulating the skin hydration. Deficiency of ceramides, cholesterol, and essential fatty acids leads to excess TEWL and results in skin dryness, i.e., xerosis.4 Creams containing ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids increase sebum and decrease TEWL, promoting skin hydration and the ability to repair dry skin conditions.5

Tripeptide-5 in this product is capable of penetrating into several layers of the epidermis to decrease collagen breakdown and stimulate the synthesis of collagen that ultimately accumulates in the papillary dermis and increases cell turnover.6-7 

Formulator’s Notes

A thoroughly tested ratio of wax to emulsifier eliminates waxy and heavy texture, reducing transepidermal water loss as the cream can hold more water to the skin for an extended period of time. The light and smooth texture is further enhanced by using an optimal amount of emollient, eliminating the bubbles in the cream as well as forming a protective layer on the skin surface to keep it moisturized.

1. Nojiri, H. et al., 2018. Amelioration of lactic acid sensations in sensitive skin by stimulating the barrier function and improving the ceramide profile. Archives of Dermatological Research, 310(6), pp. 495-504.
2. Carneiro, R. et al., 2011. Topical emulsions containing ceramides: Effects on the skin barrier function and anti-inflammatory properties. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 113(8), pp. 961-966.
3. Kahraman, E. et al., 2019. Recent Advances on Topical Application of Ceramides to Restore Barrier Function of Skin. Cosmetics, 6(3), p. 52
4. Halvarsson, K., Loden, M., Increasing quality of life by improving the quality of skin in patients with atopic dermatitis. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2007, 29, 69–83.
5. Machado, M., Bronze, M. R., Ribeiro, H. M., New cosmetic emulsions for dry skin. J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 2007, 6, 239–242.
6. Schagen, S., 2017. Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective Anti-Aging Results. Cosmetics, 4(2), p. 16.
7. Rahnamaeian, M.; Vilcinskas, A. Short antimicrobial peptides as cosmetic ingredients to deter dermatological pathogens. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2015, 99, 8847–8855.